Climate Change: Global Climate Initiatives by India

Brajesh Mohan

Climate Change: Global Climate Initiatives by India. The Prime Minister of India launched CDRI during his speech at the UN Climate Action Summit in New York on 23rd September 2019. ISA was launched by India and France at the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris in 2015. 

      Programs and Policies are importance part of Economics and Social Issue, Agriculture and Rural Development section of RBI Grade B and NABARD Grade A Exam respectively. Covering Government schemes directly from source is very much needed but not easy to do, through this article we are solving this problem for you. Read our Programs and Policies related articles on regular basis to gain knowledge about these schemes for RBI Grade B, NABARD Grade A Exam and even for UPSC Civil Service exams.

      International Conference on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure

      International Conference on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure

      Recently, the Prime Minister addressed the inaugural session of the fourth edition of the International Conference on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure via video message.

      ICDRI is the annual international conference of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) in partnership with member countries, organizations and institutions to strengthen the global discourse on disaster and climate resilient infrastructure.

      What is CDRI?

      The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) is a multi-stakeholder global partnership of national governments, UN (United Nations) agencies and programmes, multilateral development banks and financing mechanisms, the private sector, and knowledge institutions.

      • The Prime Minister of India launched CDRI during his speech at the UN Climate Action Summit in New York on 23rd September 2019.
      • CDRI was then approved in 2019 for which the Government of India also pledged financial support of ₹480 crore towards the CDRI corpus

      It aims to promote the resilience of new and existing infrastructure systems to climate and disaster risks in support of sustainable development.

      Members: 30 countries and 8 organizations.

      Thematic Areas: Governance and Policy, Risk Identification and Estimation, Standards and Certification, Capacity building, Innovation & Emerging Technology, Recovery and Reconstruction, Finance and Community based approaches.

      The CDRI Secretariat is based in New Delhi, India.

      Significance for India:

      Provide a platform for India to emerge as a global leader on climate Action and Disaster Resilience.
      • CDRI boosts India's soft power, but more importantly it has wider connotation than just economics, as synergy between disaster risk reduction, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Climate Accord provides for sustainable and inclusive growth.
      Complement the International Solar Alliance (ISA).

      Facilitate India’s support to resilient infrastructure in Africa, Asia, etc.

      Provide access to knowledge, technology and capacity development for infra developers.

      Create opportunities for Indian infrastructure & technology firms to expand services abroad.

      Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)

      What is Infrastructure for Resilient Island State (IRIS)?

      About: The Infrastructure for Resilient Island State (IRIS) is an initiative under the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).
      • The Infrastructure for Resilient Island State (IRIS) is the first major initiative by India under the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).
      Mandate: The Infrastructure for Resilient Island State (IRIS) aims to create a disaster-resilient infrastructure that can minimize human and economic loss of the small island countries during various disasters.

      Funding: Australia, India and the UK have committed initial funding of $10 million under the Infrastructure for Resilient Island State (IRIS). More countries like Japan are expected to join it.

      Timely Information: ISRO will build a special data window for the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to provide them timely information about cyclones, coral-reef monitoring, coast-line monitoring, etc. through satellite.

      International Solar Alliance (ISA)

      International Solar Alliance (ISA)

      In News

      • Recently, the UN General Assembly has conferred Observer Status to the International Solar Alliance (ISA). It will help provide for regular and well-defined cooperation between the Alliance and the United Nations that would benefit global energy growth and development.

      The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is an action-oriented, member-driven, collaborative platform for increased deployment of solar energy technologies. Its basic motive is to facilitate energy access, ensure energy security, and drive energy transition in its member countries. The ISA was conceived as a joint effort by India and France to mobilize efforts against climate change through deployment of solar energy solutions.

      It was presented by the leaders of the two countries at the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris in 2015. 

      • The Assembly is the apex decision-making body of the ISA. It meets annually at the Ministerial level at the seat of the ISA.

      Vision: Let us together make the sun brighter.

      Mission: Every home, no matter how far away, will have a light at home.

      Headquarters: The Headquarters is in India with its Interim Secretariat being set up in Gurugram.

      Member Nations:

      • A total of 106 countries have signed the ISA Framework Agreement.
      • Out of 106 nations, 86 have signed and ratified the ISA Framework Agreement.
      • All member states of the United Nations are eligible to join the ISA.


      • To achieve the common goal of increasing the use and quality of solar energy in meeting the energy needs of prospective ISA member countries in a safe, convenient, affordable, equitable and sustainable manner.
      • To mobilize investments of more than USD 1000 billion by 2030.
      • Reduce the cost of finance to increase investments in solar energy in member countries by promoting innovative financial mechanisms and mobilizing finance from Institutions;
      • Facilitate collaborative research and development (R&D) activities in solar energy technologies among member countries.
      • Promote a common cyber platform for networking, cooperation and exchange of ideas among member countries.

      Director General of ISA:

      • The International Solar Alliance is headed by the Director General.
      • The Director General leads the operations and carries out the functions of the ISA Secretariat.
      • He is responsible to the ISA Assembly.
      • The Director General has a term of four years and is eligible for re-election.

      What are the Key Responsibilities of Assembly?

      The Assembly of the ISA is the apex decision-making body which comprises representatives from each Member Nations.

      The assembly deliberates matters of substances such as:

      • The selection of the Director General.
      • Achievement of ISA objectives.
      • ISA functioning.
      • Approval of operating budget.
      • Assessment of implementation of the Programmes.
      • Determines the course of coordinated actions.

      What are the Key Responsibilities of the Secretariat?

      • Assist the National Focal Points in preparing the programmes proposals and recommendations submitted to the assembly.
      • Provide guidance and support to members in the implementation of each programme, including for the raising of funds.
      • Act on behalf of the Assembly, or on behalf of a group of Members participating in a particular programme, when so requested by them and in particular establish contacts with relevant stakeholders.
      • Set and operate all means of communication, instruments and cross-cutting activities required for the functioning of the ISA and its Programmes, as approved by the Assembly.


      Funding: Providing the money for promoting solar electricity among the members is a challenge. 

      • The Alliance has very little money of its own. And the priority of multilateral banking institutions such as the Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank and the New Development Bank etc. is different. 

      Expensive: The cost of power has two components. The variable cost is the payment made for the number of units of electricity purchased. 

      • In addition, the buyer is required to pay a certain amount towards the fixed cost of solar supply. 

      Storage: Solar electricity is available only during the day when the sun shines. Thus, the storage of electricity is a difficult task.

      Transmission Roadblocks: Solar electricity has to overcome the roadblocks of transmission.  

      • Cross-border transmission of electricity requires the establishment of transmission lines from the producer to the consumer country. These lines have to be dedicated to specific countries.

      Availability during peak hours: The demand for electricity, however, is more during the morning and evening which are called “peak hours”. But it can be produced when the sun is shining.

      Recycling of waste: Silicon is present in the solar panels. The challenge is to develop methods for reusing silicon for making new panels.

      What are the Important projects of the ISA?

      Green Grids Initiative-One Sun One World One Grid (GGI-OSOWOG)

      • The project, titled Green Grids Initiative-One Sun One World One Grid (GGI-OSOWOG or OSOWOG), aims to harness solar energy wherever the sun is shining as the earth completes its 24-hour rotation around its axis, and transporting the electricity generated to areas that need it
      • According to the draft plan prepared by the MNRE, the ambitious OSOWOG will connect 140 countries through a common grid that will be used to transfer solar power, it was announced at the Conference of Parties (COP26) climate meet in Glasgow.
      • Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his Independence Day address mentioned about the mega plan of "One Sun, One World, One Grid" (OSOWOG) or a trans-national electricity grid supplying solar power across the globe. 
      • The idea was first floated by Modi in 2018 during the first assembly of the International Solar Alliance (ISA).
      • The vision behind the OSOWOG mantra is “the Sun never sets” and is a constant at some geographical location, globally, at any given point of time
      • It has been taken up under the technical assistance program of the World Bank.

      The plan is divided into three phases:

      • The first phase will connect the Indian grid with the Middle East, South Asia and South-East Asian grids to share solar and other renewable energy resources.
      • The second phase will connect the first phase nations with the African pool of renewable sources.
      • The third phase will be the concluding step of global interconnection.

      ISA Solar Technology and Application Resource Centre (ISTAR C):

      • To build a network of technical training, entrepreneurship, and research and innovation centres in order to exchange best practices and promote knowledge dissemination and capacity-building.
      • To develop and disseminate a range of training materials for all types of audiences and aim at the setting up of harmonized training programmes using a network of training facilities that would be recognized across the ISA Member countries.
      • To work on standardization of solar applications at the regional or sub-regional level and provide testing and technical certification capabilities to key STAR-centres.
      • To enable collaborative research and development among the ISA Member countries.

      Recent Coalition

      The ISA has signed a tripartite agreement with the World Bank and the Government of India and is now actively involved in preparing a vision and implementation plan for the “One Sun, One World, One Grid” Initiative to harness the power of interconnected grids for enabling energy transition to a low-carbon world.

      The International Solar Alliance (ISA) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed a memorandum of understanding at the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow, agreeing to collaborate and support countries in the implementation of ambitious national climate action in line with global efforts.

      Fourth Assembly of ISA

      • The just-concluded fourth assembly of the ISA discussed the operationalization of OSOWOG and held a technical session on it
      • Key subjects deliberated included a $1-trillion Solar Investment Roadmap for 2030, and approval of a “Blended Financial Risk Mitigation Facility.” Bloomberg Philanthropies (BP), a New York-based charitable organization, announced a partnership with ISA to mobilize the sum of $1 trillion.
      • OSOWOG aims to link existing national and regional grids to each other in order to create multiple intra-continental grids and eventually a single intercontinental global grid connecting the world.

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